pH is a measure of active acidity in the feedstock or compost. The pH scale is 0 (acidic) to 14 (basic) with 7 being neutral. Most finished composts will have pH values in the range of 5.0 to 8.5. Ideal pH depends on compost use. A lower pH is preferred for certain ornamental plants while a neutral pH is suitable for most other applications. pH is not a measure of the total acidity or alkalinity and cannot be used to predict the effect of compost on soil pH.
Soluble salts are determined by measuring electrical conductivity (EC) in a 1:5 (compost:water, weight ratio) slurry. EC is related to the total soluble salts dissolved in the slurry and is measured in units of millimhos/cm (mmhos/cm). Compost soluble salt levels typically range from 1 to 10 mmhos/cm. High salinity may be toxic to plants. Ideal soluble salt levels will depend on the end use of the compost. Final compost blends with soil or container media/potting mixes should be tested for soluble salts.
The ideal moisture content for composting will depend on the water holding capacity of the materials being composted. In general, high organic matter materials have a higher water holding capacity and a higher ideal moisture content. A typical starting compost mix will have an ideal % solids content of 35-55% (65-45% moisture.) Finished compost should have a % solids content of 50-60% (50-40% moisture).
There is no ideal organic matter level for feedstocks or finished compost. Organic matter content will decrease Matter during composting. The organic matter content (dry weight basis) of typical feedstocks and starting mixes will be greater than 60 % while that of finished compost will be in the range of 30-70 %. An organic matter content (dry weight basis) of 50-60 % is desirable for most compost uses.
Total nitrogen (N) includes all forms of nitrogen: organic N, ammonium N (NH4-N), and nitrate N (NO3-N ). Total N will normally range from less than 1 % to around 5 % (dry weight basis) in most feedstocks and from 0.5 to 2.5 % (dry weight basis) in finished composts. NO3-N (an optional test) is generally present in only low concentrations in immature composts, although it may increase as the compost matures. NH4-N levels may be high and Nitrate during initial stages of the composting process, but decrease as maturity increases. Organic N is determined by subtracting the inorganic N forms, NH4-N and NO3-N, from total N. However, because NO3-N levels are generally very low, total nitrogen minus NH4-N provides a good estimate of organic N in most composts and is the value shown on the front of this report. In stable, finished composts, most of the N should be in the organic form. While NH4-N and NO3-N are immediately available to plants, organic N is only slowly available, approximately 10 to 20 % per year. However, mineralization or break-down of organic N into available inorganic forms depends on the C:N ratio (see below) as well as factors such as soil moisture and temperature.
Total carbon (C) is a direct measurement of all organic and inorganic carbon in the compost sample. Unless the sample has a high pH (> 8.3) or is known to contain carbonates, essentially all carbon will be in the organic form. Compost organic matter typically contains around 54 % organic carbon by weight. The carbon content of individual feedstocks may vary from this ratio.
This is the ratio of total carbon (C) to total nitrogen (N) in the compost sample provided. C:N ratio may be used as an indicator of compost stability and N availability. Compost C:N ratio typically decreases during composting if Ratio the starting C:N ratio is > 25, but may increase if the starting C:N ratio is low (< 15) and N is lost during the composting process. Composts with high C:N ratios (> 30) will likely immobilize or tie-up N if applied to soil, while those with low C:N ratios (< 20) will mineralize or break-down organic N to inorganic (plant-available) N.
Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are plant macronutrients. Values reported are for total amounts given in the Potassium oxide forms (P2O5 and K2O). These results provide an indication of the nutrient value of the compost sample. However, plant availability of total phosphorus and potassium in compost has not yet been established.
When compost is applied on the basis of nitrogen (N), most composts will have an excess of phosphorus (P) and Phosphorus, potassium (K) relative to crop demand. These mineral elements and salts can accumulate to above optimum levels Potassium with repeated application. Growers using compost should regularly soil test to monitor P, K and salt accumulation Balance and should consider using other nutrient sources or nitrogen fixing legumes in their crop rotation especially when P and K levels are above optimum.
Here is a copy of our Compost so you can have some practice looking at this stuff.